Philippines

Active Grants: 15

GDP (current US$): 313.60 billion (2017)

Population: 104.92 million (2017)

Major Partners

World Bank 

INFORM Risk Rating: 5.2

Risk data from INFORM, a global open-source risk assessment for humanitarian crises and disasters, uses a scale from 0-10, with 10 as the highest level of risk.

Primary Hazards

Context

Natural Hazard Risk

The Philippines is at high risk from cyclones, earthquakes, floods, landslides, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, and wildfires. Since 1990, the Philippines has been affected by 565 natural disaster events that have claimed the lives of nearly 70,000 Filipinos and caused an estimated $23 billion in damages. At least 60 percent of the country’s total land area is exposed to multiple hazards, and 74 percent of the population is vulnerable to their impact.

An average of 20 typhoons make landfall in the Philippines every year, and typhoons making landfall over the last decade have become stronger and more devastating. In 2013, Typhoon Yolanda, the strongest storm ever recorded at landfall, caused over 6,000 reported fatalities and damaged 1.1 million homes in nine regions. The country is also frequently affected by earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. The Philippines has about 22 active volcanoes. In January 2018, Mount Mayon erupted, causing more than 56,000 people to evacuate the surrounding areas and damaging agriculture. 

Climate change is exacerbating the impact of weather-related events in the Philippines. The country is witnessing longer episodes of drought and El Niño, which disrupts the volume of agricultural production and hurts GDP. Unregulated urban expansion has also aggravated flooding risk and is expected to continue in the future.

Government Priorities

The Philippines has made strides in disaster and climate resilience over the past decade. Established in 2009, the National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Council is a working group of government, non-government, civil society, and private sector organizations. The Council is responsible for ensuring the protection and welfare of the people during disasters. The National Disaster Risk Reduction and Management Act of 2010 was a landmark legislation that shifted the Government of the Philippines’ focus from emergency relief to disaster risk reduction and prevention. The Philippine government formulated a national disaster risk management (DRM) plan to implement the requirements set out by this legislation. 

To further advance the DRM agenda, national priorities include:

  • Supporting risk reduction investments;
  • Strengthening institutional capacity for DRM;
  • Mainstreaming DRM into development planning; and,
  • Better managing fiscal exposure to natural hazard impacts.
GFDRR progress to date

GFDRR has supported the Philippines since 2008 in enabling risk reduction activities, strengthening the country’s financial resilience, and improving post-disaster recovery. In the aftermath of 2009’s Tropical Storm Ondoy and Typhoon Pepeng, the Government of the Philippines conducted a post-disaster needs assessment (PDNA), with support from GFDRR, the World Bank, and other partners. This assessment resulted in a series of recommendations to strengthen the country’s disaster resilience.

Based on the PDNA recommendations, GFDRR provided the Philippines with technical support to implement an innovative DRM reform agenda, including a disaster risk financing strategy. The strategy included the use of a DRM Development Policy Loan with a Catastrophic Deferred Drawdown Option (Cat-DDO) that provides the government with up to $500 million in rapid liquidity in the aftermath of a natural disaster. The Cat-DDO was disbursed in December 2011 after Tropical Storm Sendong (Washi), and the World Bank approved a second $500 million Cat-DDO for the Philippines in December 2015. At the municipal level, the 2009 PDNA recommendations leveraged GFDRR technical expertise to develop a flood management master plan for Manila and surrounding areas to build resilience to future flood events.

Immediately after Typhoon Yolanda in 2013, GFDRR and the World Bank provided advisory services on principles and policies for reconstruction. In addition, the National Economic and Development Authority received support to develop the Reconstruction Assistance on Yolanda plan, which was created in an unprecedented five weeks after the typhoon made landfall.

Since 2014, GFDRR has provided technical support for revising the National Building Code of the Philippines (NBCP) by supporting the Department of Public Works and Highways to integrate and mainstream disaster risk reduction measures. GFDRR’s activities have enabled the department to review basic provisions of the NBCP, develop revisions aiming to fundamentally improve the national building regulations, and reduce the impacts of disasters and climate change on the built environment. This was a key result indicator of the Second DRM Development Policy Loan with a CAT-DDO, financed by the World Bank. 

Currently, GFDRR is helping the Philippines increase the capacity of selected local governments to manage climate risks faced by local transport infrastructure and pilot an institutionalized coordination process. Grant-funded activities include high resolution risk mapping based on existing hazard information, prioritizing investments for roads improvement and flood management, and reevaluating asset management frameworks for local roads considering future climate and natural hazard risks. 

GFDRR anticipates continued demand from the Philippines in the following areas:

  • Developing a flood management master plan for Manila;
  • Supporting increased risk reduction investments at the local government level;
  • Strengthening risk reduction investment planning and regulations; and,
  • Enhancing financial capacity to manage natural disaster risk. 

Grants Awarded by GFDRR 2007 - Present

Grant
DRF Analytics - Pillar 1: Country Implementation
$1,543,185 05/2016 - 12/2019
Disaster Risk Finance Analytics - Pillar 2: Core/Parent Tool Development
$1,029,038 08/2016 - 12/2019
DRF Analytics - Pillar 3: Knowledge Management
$704,942 08/2016 - 12/2019
Developing an emergency cash transfer for increased household resilience to disasters in the Philippines
$400,000 04/2016 - 12/2018
Empowering elders, women and people with disabilities for resilience
$600,000 03/2016 - 12/2018
Philippines - Post-Disaster Technical Assistance: Surigao del Norte Earthquake
$150,000 05/2017 - 06/2018
Enabling Scaled Up Risk Reduction Investments in the Philippines
$2,030,000 08/2014 - 12/2018
Philippines - Support to Implementation of Disaster Risk Financing and Insurance Strategy
$3,986,058 12/2014 - 12/2018
Open Data for Resilience Initiative: Tools and Capacity Building
$250,000 06/2017 - 12/2018
Philippines: Development of a Policy Framework for Post-Disaster Shelter Assistance
$100,000 11/2016 - 09/2018
Philippines: Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management to Sustain Local Infrastructure- A Case Study on Resilient Roads Planning
$200,000 03/2018 - 11/2019
Enhancing financial protection resilience in V20 member countries
$400,000 10/2016 - 03/2019
Community-Based Disaster Risk Mapping National Community Driven Development Project - Philippines
$500,000 03/2016 - 06/2018
Institutionalizing Post-Typhoon Yolanda Disaster Recovery Policies and Processes in the Philippines
$206,308 04/2014 - 04/2017
Supporting a Disaster Risk Management Agenda in the Philippines
$2,099,561 02/2012 - 08/2016

World Bank Engagements 2012 – Present

Project Description
Post-Typhoon Recovery Loan
$500 million | Start date: 12/2013 (Closed)

The project aims to provide emergency budget support for relief and reconstruction efforts in the wake of Typhoon Haiyan.

Philippines National Community Driven Development Program
$479 million | Start date: 02/2014 (Ongoing)

The project objectives are to empower communities in targeted municipalities to achieve improved access to services and to participate in more inclusive local planning, budgeting, and implementation.

Philippine Rural Development Project
$501.25 million | Start date: 08/2014 (Ongoing)

The project aims to increase rural incomes and enhance farm and fishery productivity in the targeted areas by supporting smallholders and fisher folk to increase their marketable surpluses, and their access to markets.

Preparation of a Program Towards Sustainable Flood Management in the Greater Metro Manila Area Project
$3 million | Start date: 09/2014 (Ongoing)

The objective is to prepare priority projects, identified by the flood management master plan, that aim to improve flood management and resilience in and around Metro Manila.

Studies for Sustainable Flood Management
$7 million | Start date: 01/2015 (Ongoing)

The development objective of the Studies for Sustainable Flood Management Project for Philippines is to prepare priority projects that aim to improve flood management and resilience in the Greater Metro Manila area.

Reduce Vulnerability to Flooding in MM
$1.5 million | Start date: 06/2015 (Closed)

The purpose of the Grant is to reduce the vulnerability of Metro Manila and surrounding areas, including parts of Bulacan and Pampanga, to future flood events, following the typhoons that occurred in the recent years, including Ondoy in September 2009, Pepeng in October 2009, and Pedring in August 2011.

Second Disaster Risk Management Development Policy Loan with a Cat-DDO
$500 million | Start date: 12/2015 (Ongoing)

The development objective of the project is to enhance the technical and financial capacity of the Government of the Philippines to reduce disaster risk and manage the socio-economic and fiscal impacts of natural disasters.

Philippines Social Welfare Development and Reform Project II
$450 million | Start date: 02/2016 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to support the National Program Support for Social Protection of the Department of Social Welfare and Development to improve the use of health and education services for poor children.

Philippines Program for Climate Resilience: TA for the Risk Resiliency and Sustainability Program
$150,000 | Start date: 05/2017 (Ongoing)

The Project Development Objective of this recipient-executed grant is to enable the Government of the Philippines to increase climate adaptation and resilience investments and their effectiveness in reducing climate risks impacting people and livelihoods in key vulnerable landscapes of the Philippines.

Metro Manila Flood Management Project
$207.6 million | Start date: 09/2017 (Ongoing)

The development objective of the Metro Manila Flood Management Project for Philippines is to improve flood management in selected areas of metro manila.