India

Active Projects: 2

GDP (current US$): 2.2 trillion (2016)

Population: 1.32 billion (2016)

Major Partners

World Bank, European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Asian Development Bank (ADB)

INFORM Risk Rating: 5.4

Risk data from INFORM, a global open-source risk assessment for humanitarian crises and disasters, uses a scale from 0-10, with 10 as the highest level of risk.

Primary Hazards

Context

Hazard Risk

India is vulnerable to a wide range of natural hazards, particularly cyclones, floods, drought, landslides and earthquakes. A number of studies show that, as a result of climate change, the intensity, duration and frequency of weather-related shocks are likely to increase.  

In 2013, India experienced the double shock of severe flash floods in the state of Uttarakhand and Cyclone Phailin in the state of Odisha. The flooding and associated landslides in Uttarakhand caused over 4,000 deaths and $661 million in damages and losses, resulting in the country’s worst disaster since the 2004 tsunami.  

In India, vulnerability to natural hazards is exacerbated by high population density and growth in urban and coastal areas.  

Government Priorities 

The Government of India has taken significant steps to advance disaster risk management (DRM) and improve climate resilience. These include: 

  • Developing a National Action Plan on Climate Change (2008); 
  • Updating the National Policy on Disaster Management (2009), which includes guidelines for the creation of DRM plans at the state level; and 
  • Developing the National Disaster Plan (2016), which provides a framework and direction for government agencies throughout all phases of DRM.  

With its proactive hydrological policies and programs, such as the National Cyclone Risk Reduction Project, India has been cited as a case study for well-planned and carefully-executed DRM. DRM initiatives, including those supported by GFDRR, enabled a 99.6 percent reduction in fatalities during Cyclone Phailin compared to a similar storm system 14 years ago. However, capacity needs to be built and resources committed for India to minimize its overall risk and vulnerability to natural hazards.  

To further advance the DRM agenda, priorities include: 

  • Integrating DRM into development policies and processes; 
  • Enhancing institutional capacity and financial mechanisms to manage the impact of natural disasters; and,  
  • Building the resilience of communities and settlements in coastal areas. 
GFDRR progress to date

Since 2007, GFDRR has supported the advancement of DRM in India. Key areas of focus have included helping India understand damage and loss after major disaster events and mitigating against the risks of flooding and cyclones.  

GFDRR has supported assessments following major disasters to help the Government of India and state governments better understand damage and loss in order to recover resiliently and leverage additional support. For example, the PDNA following the flooding of the Kosi River in the state of Bihar in 2008 led to a $170 million World Bank Project. With GFDRR support, the project has helped people in Bihar recover and build resilient communities for the long-term. As part of the project, 100,000 damaged houses have been rebuilt using an owner-driven model. The project is currently being extended through a $377 million initiative to increase flood resilience and agricultural productivity in targeted districts.   

In 2010, GFDRR provided technical and financial support to help implement the $255 million World Bank National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. The project has improved early warning systems and built risk mitigation infrastructure, including 270 multi-purpose Cyclone shelters for nearly 280,000 people living in vulnerable coastal areas. This program contributed to a dramatic reduction in fatalities following Cyclone Phailin in 2013 compared to a similar storm system 14 years prior. The project is currently being scaled through $308.4 million in World Bank financing in order to directly benefit an additional 1.6 million people exposed to cyclones.  

In order to enhance resilience and improve DRM service delivery, GFDRR has supported and continues to support a number of projects that help build the capacity of national, state, and local officials as well as community leaders.  

GFDRR anticipates continued demand to strengthen disaster and climate resilience in the following areas:  

  • Building the resilience of urban coastal communities; 
  • Strengthening DRM capacity through knowledge exchanges; and, 
  • Promoting seismic risk and resilient infrastructure.  

 

Projects Awarded by GFDRR 2007 - Present

Project Description
Improving Service Delivery of DRM in India
$2,000,000 02/2015 - 04/2018

The objective of this project is to enhance resilience and improve service delivery of DRM by building and expanding institutional capacities to assess and improve the quality of resilient infrastructure, enhance analytical understanding of risks and to develop investment plans for building long-term resilience. The project will bring Japanese and international experiences and best practices to India to support institutions at the national, state, and local levels delivering effective DRM services that address: i) the ability to assess and plan the resilience of infrastructure; ii) an analytical understanding of disaster risk and planning; and iii) an awareness and institutional capacity of DRM tools. The project will fund: i) the development of technical assistance and of investment plans at state level; ii) capacity building activities targeting national, state, and local officials and community leaders; and iii) dissemination and knowledge exchange with Japanese experts and counterparts.

Support to Strengthen India’s National DRM Capacity
$946,237 10/2014 - 08/2017

This project will contribute to efforts to enhance the state and national governments’ capacity to prepare for, manage, and recover from the impacts of natural disasters through enhanced disaster risk management (DRM) service delivery. This program aims to consolidate gains made from previous grants and other donor support, including through the large number of ongoing World Bank DRM engagements across India. Activities will focus on enabling and supporting implementation of risk mitigation and preparedness infrastructure investments. Technical assistance and advisory services will be provided, and are expected to support policy dialogue, building guidelines, and early warning systems, among other areas. Specific work will include: i) assistance to develop and implement DRM polices and strategies; ii) institutional, legal and regulatory frameworks and policies; iii) assistance to prepare and implement investments or reform in emergency management; iv) support to raise public awareness; and v) assistance to improve early warning systems.

World Bank Engagements 2012 – Present

Project Description
Bihar Kosi Basin Development Project $250 million | Start date: 2016-11 (Ongoing)

The project development objective are: (i) to enhance resilience to floods and increase agricultural production and productivity in the targeted districts in the Kosi River Basin; and (ii) to enhance Bihar’s capacity to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Tamil Nadu Sustainable Urban Development Program $400 million | Start date: 2015-11 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to improve urban services delivery in participating urban local bodies in a financially sustainable manner and to pilot improved urban managementpractices in selected cities.

National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project-II $308.4 million | Start date: 2015-4 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to reduce vulnerability to cyclone and other hydro-meteorological hazards of coastal communities in project States, and increase the capacity of the State entities to effectively plan for and respond to disasters.

Jhelum and Tawi Flood Recovery Project $250 million | Start date: 2015-11 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to support the recovery and increase disaster resilience in Project Areas, and increase thecapacity of the Project Implementing Entity to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

India Neeranchal National Watershed Project $178.5 million | Start date: 2015-11 (ongoing)

The project development objective is to support integrated watershed management program (IWMP) through technical assistance to improve incremental conservation outcomes and agricultural yields for communities in selected sites, and adoption of more effective processes and technologies into the broader IWMP in participating states.

Andhra Pradesh Disaster Recovery Project $250 million | Start date: 2015-11 (Ongoing)

The project development objectives are: (i) to restore, improve, and enhance the resilience of public services, environmental facilities, and livelihoods in targeted communities; and (ii) to enhance the capacity of state entities to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Sustainable Livelihoods and Adaptation to Climate Change - | Start date: 2015-4 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to improve adaptive capacity of the rural poor engaged in farm-based livelihoods to cope with climate variability and change.

India Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project for Low Income States $500 million | Start date: 2014-4 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to improve piped water supply and sanitation services for selected rural communities in the target states through decentralized delivery systems and to increase the capacity of the participating states to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Uttar Pradesh Water Sector Restructuring Project Phase II $360 million | Start date: 2014-11 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to strengthen the institutional and policy framework for integrated water resources management for the entire state and increase agricultural productivity and water productivity by supporting farmers in targeted irrigation areas.

Uttarakhand Disaster Recovery Project $250 million | Start date: 2014-11 (Ongoing)

The development objectives of the project are to restore housing, rural connectivity and build resilience of communities in Uttarakhand and increase the technical capacity of the State entities to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Odisha Disaster Recovery Project $153 million | Start date: 2014-11 (Ongoing)

The development objectives of the project are to restore and improve housing and public services in targeted communities of Odisha, and increase the capacity of the state entities to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Uttarakhand Decentralized Watershed Development II Project $121.20 million | Start date: 2014-4 (Ongoing)

The objective of the project is to increase the efficiency of natural resource use and productivity of rain-fed agriculture by participating communities in selected micro-watersheds of the State of Uttarakhand.

India National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project Additional Financing $104 million | Start date: 2014-11 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to reduce the vulnerability of coastal communities in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa to cyclones and other hydro meteorological hazards.

2nd Development Policy Loan to Support Inclusive Green Growth and Sustainable Devlpment in Himachal Pradesh $100 million | Start date: 2014-4 (Closed)

The development objective of the project is to support the Government of Himachal Pradesh to make a permanent paradigm shift to promote inclusive green growth and sustainable development.

Bihar Integrated Social Protection Strengthening Project $84 million | Start date: 2014-11 (Ongoing)

The development objective of the project is to strengthen institutional capacity of the Department of Social Welfare and the Rural Development Department to deliver social protection programs and services and expand outreach of social care services for poor and vulnerable households, persons with disabilities, older persons and widows in the state of Bihar.

Uttarakhand Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project Additional Financing $24 million | Start date: 2014-11 (Closed)

The project development objective is to improve the effectiveness of rural water supply and sanitation services through decentralization and an increased role of Panchayati Raj Institutions and local communities in the state of Uttarakhand. It will also restore services of damaged schemes in disaster affected areas.

Tamil Nadu and Puducherry Coastal Disaster Risk Reduction Project $236 million | Start date: 2013-11 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to increase the resilience of coastal communities in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry to a range of hydro-meteorological and geophysical hazards, along with improve the capacity of project implementing entities to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Karnataka Watershed Development II $60 million | Start date: 2013-11 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to demonstrate more effective watershed management through greater integration of programs related to rainfed agriculture, innovative and science based approaches, and strengthened institutions and capacities.

National Rural Livelihoods Project $1 billion | Start date: 2012-4 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to establish efficient and effective institutional platforms of the rural poor that enable them to increase household income through sustainable livelihood enhancements and improved access to financial and selected public services.

West Bengal Accelerated Development of Minor Irrigation $250 million | Start date: 2012-4 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to enhance agricultural production of small and marginal farmers in the project area. This will be achieved through development of minor irrigation schemes, strengthening community-based irrigation management, and support to agricultural development, including provision of agricultural services, encouraging crop diversification and use of new technologies, and creating income generating opportunities.

Bihar Rural Livelihoods Project Additional Financing $100 million | Start date: 2012-4 (Closed)

The project development objective is to enhance social and economic empowerment of the rural poor in Bihar.

Uttarakhand Health Systems Development Project $100 million | Start date: 2017-1 (Ongoing)

The Project Development Objective is to improve access to quality health services, particularly in the hilly districts of the state, and to expand health financial risk protection for the residents of Uttarakhand.

Capacity Augmentation of the National Waterway- 1 (JAL MARG VIKAS) Project $375 million | Start date: 2017-4 (ongoing)

The Project Development Objective is to enhance transport efficiency and reliability of National Waterway and augment institutional capacity for the development and management of India's inland waterway transport system in an environmentally sustainable manner.

National Hydrology Project $175 million | Start date: 2017-3 (ongoing)

The Project Development Objective is to improve the extent, quality, and accessibility of water resources information and to strengthen the capacity of targeted water resources management institutions in India.

Madhya Pradesh Urban Development Project $116.2 million | Start date: 2017-4 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to enhance the capacity of MPUDC to improve coverage of key urban services and increase the revenue of participating urban local bodies.

Bihar Rural Roads Project $235 million | Start date: 2016-12 (Ongoing)

The Project Development Objective is to improve rural road connectivity in project districts, and enhance management of rural roads in Bihar.

Assam Agribusiness and Rural Transformation Project $200 million | Start date: 2017-8 (Ongoing)

The development objective of the Assam Agribusiness and Rural Transformation Project for India is to add value and improve resilience of selected agriculture value chains, focusing on smallholder farmers and agro-entrepreneurs in targeted districts of Assam.