This document was prepared by Gerald J Fleming and benefited from the peer review by Vladimir Tsirkunov, Lead Specialist, World Bank. This document was prepared under the World Bankfinanced project ‘Strengthening Risk Information for Disaster Resilience in Bhutan (P175081)’ which is implemented by the Royal Government of Bhutan, including the National Centre for Hydrology and Meteorology (NCHM), and co-financed by the Climate Investment Fund and the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR)’s European Union-South Asia Capacity Building for Developing Countries and Japan-World Bank Program for Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Management in Developing Countries.