Natural Hazard Risk
Nigeria is regularly affected by multiple hazards such as floods and droughts. In 2012, Nigeria experienced a double shock of severe drought in the Northeast and widespread flooding that affected almost the entire country. The floods caused nearly $17 billion in damages and losses in the 12 most-affected states, according to a GFDRR-supported post-disaster needs assessment (PDNA).
Low-income households are the most vulnerable to weather-related natural disasters. Agriculture, which is heavily impacted by flooding and drought, serves as the main source of income for 80 percent of the rural poor. Furthermore, the rapid rise of urban poverty increases potential flood risk.
Nigeria has taken steps to advance its disaster risk management (DRM) agenda. In 2011, the country passed the National Disaster Management Framework (NDMF) to support a paradigm shift from response and recovery to risk management, but the enforcement and implementation needs to be strengthened. The 2012 floods and subsequent PDNA furthered Nigeria’s political will to invest in long-term disaster resilience.
Nigeria is also a conflict-affected country. Nearly 15 million people have been affected by violence from the Boko Haram insurgency and resulting military operations in northeast Nigeria since 2009. Supporting the recovery of affected communities is a key priority for the government.
To further reduce risks and advance DRM, national priorities include:
- Establishing functional DRM institutions at all levels of government;
- Coordinating amongst government agencies to share data;
- Addressing flood risks and the growing exposure to risk;
- Developing plans for disaster preparedness to include conflicts and epidemics; and,
- Building community resilience and coping capacity.
GFDRR’s first engagements in Nigeria followed the widespread flooding that occurred in 2010 and 2012. GFDRR supported a PDNA led by the Government of Nigeria. The resulting data raised awareness and informed two World Bank investments valued at $700 million. These projects are strengthening agricultural productivity and climate resilience, and developing resilient urban infrastructure and early warning systems through engagements at the community-level.
Building on strong political will following the 2012 floods, GFDRR has provided financial and technical assistance to build the Government of Nigeria’s institutional DRM capacity at the central and state levels. GFDRR is helping move emergency response planning and investments towards longer term disaster risk reduction through the development of a comprehensive DRM and Climate Change Adaptation (CCA) strategy. This includes mapping all stakeholders engaged in DRM and CCA at the national and state levels.
In 2015, the Government of Nigeria requested support to assess peacebuilding and crisis recovery needs. The EU, the UN, and the World Bank, with support from GFDRR, conducted a Recovery and Peacebuilding Assessment (RPBA). GFDRR helped develop the assessment methodology and provided assistance in the use of satellite imagery to map crises, the first time such technology was extensively used in a large-scale assessment. The RPBA estimated that total recovery needs were over $6.5 billion. The results have been embraced as a critical component to national recovery and peacebuilding.
At the regional level, Nigeria participates in a number of GFDRR-supported projects, including those that coordinate drought response and hydromet systems across the Sahel region.
GFDRR anticipates continued demand from the Government of Nigeria for assistance on strengthening long-term resilience to disaster and climate risks. Strategic priorities include
- Developing innovative financing mechanisms to respond to shocks caused by natural hazards;
- Supporting institutional capacity building for DRM;
- Strengthening flood forecasting and national early warning capacity; and,
- Improving the resilience of urban centers.