Pakistan

Active Projects: 4

GDP (current US$): 283.6 billion (2016)

Population: 193.2 million (2016)

Major Partners

Japan International Cooperation Agency, South Asia Association for Regional Cooperation, United Nations Agencies, World Bank

INFORM Risk Rating: 6.4

Risk data from INFORM, a global open-source risk assessment for humanitarian crises and disasters, uses a scale from 0-10, with 10 as the highest level of risk.

Primary Hazards

Context

Natural Hazard Risk

Pakistan is exposed to a variety of natural hazards. The most damaging are cyclones, droughts, earthquakes, floods, and landslides. In 2005, a high magnitude earthquake caused the greatest destruction and loss recorded in the country’s history: 6,700 people died; indirect income losses totaled $576 million; and relief, recovery, and reconstruction cost $5.2 billion.

Natural disasters, including reoccurring flooding, pose a major financing challenge. Flooding causes an estimated annual economic impact of 3–4 percent of the federal budget. In 2010, unprecedented flooding affected the entire length of the country, devastating 78 districts and affecting over 20 million people. A GFDRR-supported damage and needs assessment estimated $10 billion for recovery and reconstruction. In 2011, severe flooding affected 9.6 million people, many of whom were still recovering from the previous year.

The impacts of climate change are projected to increase the frequency and severity of these events.

Government Priorities

Shifting toward proactive disaster risk management (DRM) is a government priority. Following the cataclysmic 2005 earthquake, the National Disaster Management Ordinance of 2006 established the National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA). The national authority coordinates and monitors the implementation of DRM policies and strategies. District Disaster Management Authorities serve as the first line of defense.

In 2013, the National Disaster Risk Reduction Policy outlined a vision for building the NDMA’s capacity in risk assessment, prevention, mitigation, and preparedness.

To advance the DRM agenda, priorities include:

  • Improving disaster response and coordination at the national, provincial, and district or city level;
  • Developing safety nets to mitigate the effedts of crises on provinces and shocks on women and children; and, 
  • Identifying and expanding the use of disaster risk financing.
GFDRR progress to date

GFDRR has supported disaster resilience in Pakistan since 2008. Key areas include damage and loss assessments, hazard and risk assessments, sustainable reconstruction, and disaster risk financing.

Following the 2005 earthquake, GFDRR supported the government’s institutional and technical capacity to build a national safety net. The flagship Benazir Income Support Program, established in 2008, provides effective and timely cash assistance to the vulnerable in the aftermath of disasters. GFDRR also supported the documentation of lessons learned from the post-earthquake Rural Housing Reconstruction Program. The resulting manual now serves as best practice.

Following the 2010 and 2011 flooding, GFDRR supported post-disaster needs assessments (PDNAs). This work assisted the government in determining socioeconomic impacts and in formulating recovery strategies for sustainable reconstruction. Based on recommendations from the 2010 PDNA, over $500 million was leveraged for social protection cash transfers.

Since 2012, GFDRR has supported risk identification and fiscal analysis. This support led to the establishment of a risk assessment unit in the NDMA and an open source national disaster risk data sharing platform to enable data-driven decision-making and investments. GFDRR supports the platform through its Open Data for Resilience Initiative and has trained more than 90 people.

A 2015 fiscal disaster risk assessment report, supported by GFDRR and the World Bank, prompted the government to invest $245 million in disaster resilience, with a focus on fiscal resilience to natural disaster shocks.

GFDRR anticipates continued demand from the Government of Pakistan in the following engagements, which are in the early stages:

  • Building national and regional resilience to weather and climate-related risks through the European Union-South Asia Capacity Building for DRM Program;
  • Building capacity to integrate geo-hazard risk management into infrastructure programs to ensure the safety of lives and sustainability of investments; and,
  • Developing community-based approaches to support inclusion and resilience of youth and women in the largest and most populous city, Karachi.

 

 

Projects Awarded by GFDRR 2007 - Present

World Bank Engagements 2012 – Present

Project Description
Balochistan Integrated Water Resources Management & Development Project
$200 million | Start date: 04/2016 (Ongoing)

The development objective of the Balochistan Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Development Project for Pakistan is to strengthen provincial government capacity for water resources monitoring and management and to improve community-based water management for targeted irrigation schemes in Balochistan.

Water Sector Capacity Building and Advisory Services
$34.95 million | Start date: 04/2016 (Ongoing)

The project objective is to improve the management and investment planning of water resources in the Indus River Basin.

Sindh Resilience Project
$100 million | Start date: 04/2016 (Ongoing)

The development objective of the project is to mitigate flood and drought risks in selected areas and to strengthen Sindh's capacity to manage natural disasters.

PK-Sindh Barrages Improvement Project
$188 million | Start date: 04/2015 (Ongoing )

The project development objectives are to improve the reliability and safety of the Guddu barrage and strengthen the Sindh Irrigation Department’s capacity to operate and manage the barrage.

PK Sindh Irrigated Agriculture Productivity Enhancement Project
$187 million | Start date: 04/2015 (Ongoing )

The objective of the project is to improve irrigation water management at tertiary and field level in Sindh. The objective of the project is to improve irrigation water management at tertiary and field level in Sindh. he project supports efficient management of scarce water resources at the tertiary and field level where water losses are highest together with promotion of high efficiency irrigation system and improved irrigation agronomy, the project is designed to augment adaptation under different climate change scenarios.

PK Additional Financing for Sindh Water Sector Improvement Phase 1
$138 million | Start date: 04/2015 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of irrigation water distribution in Ghotki Area Water Board (AWB), Nara AWB, and Left Bank AWB, all in the Province of Sindh, particularly with respect to measures of reliability, equity and user satisfaction.

Dasu Hydropower Stage I Project
$588.4 million | Start date: 04/2014 (Ongoing )

The overall project development objective is to facilitate the expansion of electricity supply of hydro-power in Pakistan. The project will also improve access to socio-economic services for local communities in the project area and build Water and Power Development Authority's capacity to prepare future hydropower projects.

IDA Partial Credit Guarantee for Dasu Hydropower Phase-I Project
$460 million | Start date: 04/2014 (Ongoing )

The overall project development objective is to facilitate the expansion of electricity supply of hydro-power in Pakistan. The project will also improve access to socio-economic services for local communities in the project area and build Water and Power Development Authority's capacity to prepare future hydropower projects.

Pakistan: Second Sindh Education Sector Project
$400 million | Start date: 04/2013 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to raise school participation by improving sector governance and accountability and strengthening administrative systems, and measure student achievement.

Tarbela Fourth Extension Hydropower Project
$840 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Ongoing)

The overall project development objective is to facilitate a sustainable expansion in Pakistan's electricity generation capacity. The Project will also strengthen Water and Power Development Authority's capacity to develop the country's hydropower resources.

Khyber-Pakhtoonkhwa Emergency Roads Recovery Project
$8 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Closed)

The project development objective is to enable the population along the project corridor to benefit from year round improved access and mobility through reconstruction of priority damaged roads and bridges in the conflict hit areas.

Development of a program for Hazard and Risk Assessment in Urban Areas
$0.5 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Ongoing)

The proposed program aims at developing capacity for hazard and risk assessment in Pakistan and is designed to contribute to the creation of a replicable assessment framework for the country.

Additional Financing to PK: Tarbela 4th Extension Hydropower Project
$390 million | Start date: 09/2016 (Ongoing)

The Objective of the Project is to facilitate a sustainable expansion of Pakistan electricity generation capacity.

Karachi Neighborhood Improvement Project
$86 million | Start date: 06/2017 (ongoing)

The development objective of Karachi Neighborhood Improvement Project for Pakistan is to enhance public spaces in targeted neighborhoods of Karachi, and improve the city’s capacity to provide selected administrative services.