The Russian Federation’s invasion of Ukraine, which began February 24, 2022, has caused significant civilian casualties and damage to infrastructure and productive assets, and has taken a severe human, social, and economic toll. The early months of the war were characterized by battles in critical cities, such as Mariupol, and around Kyiv, areas where the Government of Ukraine temporarily did not have control of significant territory. However, starting from April 2022, the government brought more than half of this territory back under its control, with limited loss of control in new areas. On the other hand, since September 2022, there has been an increase in damage due to the use of remotely delivered explosives (e.g., missiles, drones) to target critical infrastructure, such as energy. This second Rapid Damage and Needs Assessment (RDNA2) jointly developed by the World Bank Group, the Government of Ukraine, the European Commission, and the United Nations, presents an assessment of one year of war impacts, in line with a globally accepted methodology. The assessment quantifies direct physical damage to infrastructure and buildings and quantifies the needs as the costs for recovery and reconstruction. To support the Government of Ukraine and partners with urgent recovery and reconstruction planning, the RDNA2 also estimates 2023 implementation priorities and costs, which consider urgent recovery and reconstruction needs, government priorities, absorptive and implementation capacity of different sectors, and to some extent available financing. Due to the ongoing war, there are inherent data limitations and assumptions, which are noted in the report.