Attempts to promote more advanced integrated management of river basins have provided the foundation of social and economic development in Japan today. Integrated management of river basins is not only the core concept in Japan’s technical cooperation with developing countries, but also part of a worldwide movement introduced in the Rhine, the Thames, and other areas where localized management was used in the past. Based on its long experience and River Law, Japan employs a unique river management system, in which river management authorities have centralized control over rivers in the country and provide hydrological services. Originally published September 9, 2016.