The Damage and Loss Assessment (DaLA) Methodology was initially developed by the UN Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (UN-ECLAC) in 1972. It has since been improved through close cooperation of WHO, PAHO, World Bank, Inter American Development Bank, UNESCO, ILO to capture the closest approximation of damage and losses due to disaster events. It is a flexible tool that can be adapted to specific disaster types and government ownership requirements. The DaLA Methodology bases its assessments on the overall economy of the affected country. It uses the national accounts and statistics of the country government as baseline data to assess damage and loss. It also factors in the impact of disasters on individual livelihoods and incomes to fully define the needs for recovery and reconstruction.
A DaLA includes the following:
Damage as the replacement value of totally or partially destroyed physical assets; Losses in the flows of the economy that arise from the temporary absence of the damaged assets; The resultant impact on post-disaster macroeconomic performance, with special reference to economic growth/GDP, the balance of payments and fiscal situation of the Government.
Post-Disaster Needs Assessment is a synthesis of DaLA and human recovery needs assessment. It typically includes the recovery and reconstruction framework that guides the post-disaster recovery strategy. A unique aspect of the PDNA is that it is led and owned by the government of the affected country and assisted by a multi-disciplinary, multi-agency team comprising the World Bank, GFDRR, UN Agencies, European Commission, and other relevant stakeholders. The World Bank, UNDG and the European Commission have entered into a Joint Declaration on Post-Crises Assessments and Recovery Planning in 2008 to achieve optimum coordination to support affected governments in effectively dealing with post-crises recovery.
The PDNA contains:
Damage, loss, and macro-economic impacts on the affected economy; Impacts on livelihoods, incomes, and human development; Short, medium, and long-term recovery and reconstruction needs; and, Measures for mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in post-disaster recovery and reconstruction plans.
PDNA is the universal template of assessing net disaster impact. The UN, World Bank and European Commission are finalizing a practical guide to assist country governments by streamlining the universal template in 2010. This will augment capacity development in country governments. It will also lay down standard operating procedures for the engagement of international development community for post-disaster needs assessments and recovery frameworks.