Brazil

Active Projects: 4

GDP (current US$): 2.06 trillion (2017)

Population: 209.29 million (2017)

Major Partners

World Bank, JICA

INFORM Risk Rating: 3.5

Risk data from INFORM, a global open-source risk assessment for humanitarian crises and disasters, uses a scale from 0-10, with 10 as the highest level of risk.

Primary Hazards

For additional information on the natural hazard risk profile, visit ThinkHazard.

Context

Natural Hazard Risk

Brazil is one of the world’s largest territories and is exposed to a variety of natural hazards. Drought and excess rainfall, resulting in recurrent floods and landslides, are the most frequent and disruptive events and especially impact urban areas. In 2011, floods, landslides, and mudslides in Rio de Janeiro claimed about 1,000 lives and incurred total losses of 1.35 percent of the state’s gross domestic product. Climate change is projected to increase the frequency and severity of these events.

According to GFDRR-financed analysis, Brazil’s average annual losses from natural disasters are estimated at $3.9 billion, with most impacts felt in the housing sector and by the poorest, most vulnerable populations. Rapid unplanned urbanization since the 1960s has resulted in development on unsafe areas (floodplains, steep hillside slopes) and exposed urban residents and public infrastructure to natural hazards. Between 2009 and 2014, nearly every highly populated municipality in Brazil was affected by floods and about 50,000 low-income homes were destroyed.

Government Priorities

Brazil increasingly is moving from response-oriented to proactive disaster risk management (DRM) and investing to ensure DRM continuity by building technical capacity at the federal, state, and municipal levels.

In 2012, the government invested in measures to produce risk information that supports informed decision-making and improves risk-management strategies. One of these actions created a National Natural Disasters Database.

The federal government is now responsible for preparing the National Civil Protection and Defense Plan and for identifying the most disaster-prone municipalities. And all municipalities are newly required by law to follow disaster risk management guidelines.

To further advance its DRM agenda, the government is prioritizing the following:

  • Improving infrastructure resilience and urgan and land-use planning;
  • Strengthening DRM institutions, laws, and programs at all levels of government; and,
  • Enhancing the field of DRM nationwide. 
GFDRR progress to date

Since 2011, GFDRR has supported mainstreaming disaster and climate resilience into Brazil’s broader development agenda, including in urban areas.

Drought is an issue in Brazil and since 2012, the semiarid Northeast has been suffering from prolonged drought, which is already in its fifth consecutive year. Newly approved GFDRR activities will implement an agriculture drought monitoring and prediction system pilot in Brazil’s Ceará State, using technology developed by the Government of Japan.

Under the City Resilience Program, two cities from Brazil (Manaus and Porto Alegre) participated in the Comprehensive Financial Solutions for City Resilience Conference in Bangkok, Thailand in November 2017. Moving forward, both cities will be preparing a concrete Capital Investment Plan to enable the mobilization of various sources of private capital to finance resilient urban infrastructure. 

With help from GFDRR, Brazil is strengthening the disaster resilience of federal highway infrastructure. Activities are supporting preliminary diagnostics of current DRM frameworks for federal road infrastructure, identifying priority actions to strengthen road infrastructure climate resilience to be included in a potential future World Bank lending operation.

Initiated by GFDRR’s 2014 analysis of risk-financing options in Brazil, ongoing GFDRR-financed technical assistance has supported building capacity of planning, finance, and civil defense authorities at the municipal, state, and federal levels to assess the financial implications of disaster risks and make informed risk-reduction investments and risk-financing decisions. 

In parallel, since 2014, GFDRR has supported technical assistance to improve national and municipal capacity to assess disaster risks and make informed risk reduction investments and risk financing decisions. For example, GFDRR activities supported the State of Santa Catarina in developing guidelines on probabilistic disaster risk assessments and ensuring innovative approaches to risk assessment are included in developing planning. 

Initial GFDRR assistance began after the 2011 floods in Rio de Janeiro. GFDRR supported national-level capacity building to carry out Damage and Loss Assessments (DaLA), which concluded that natural hazard events from 2008, 2010, and 2011 cost as much as $9 billion in combined damages and losses. These DaLA findings led to a GFDRR-supported technical assistance to develop a national DRM plan and promote inter-agency collaboration to ensure its success.

Moving forward, GFDRR anticipates continued demand for:

  • Institutionalizing DRM by enhancing cooperation among institutions and strengthening the national DRM plan;
  • Building on the findings of the Risk Financing Options Report to strengthen the financial resilience of federal and state governments; and,
  • Improving urban planning, natural-hazards management, and sub-national risk transfer to improve urban resilience. 

Projects Awarded by GFDRR 2007 - Present

World Bank Engagements 2012 – Present

Project Description
Bahia Inclusion and Economic Development Development Policy Loan
$700 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Closed)

The objectives of the proposed operation are to support the State of Bahia's program to reduce social inequality, develop more efficient institutional infrastructure and logistics, and strengthen public sector management.

Upgrading and Greening the Rio de Janeiro Urban Rail System Additional Financing
$600 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Ongoing)

The project development objectives are to improve the level of service provided to suburban rail transport users in a safe and cost-efficient manner; to place the suburban rail transport system on a lower carbon growth path; and to improve the transport management and policy framework in the Borrower’s territory and in the Rio de Janeiro Urban Rail System Project.

Expanding Opportunities, Enhancing Equity in the State of Pernambuco Development Policy Loan
$500 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Closed)

The project development objective is to strengthen public policies that expand economic opportunities and enhance equity of access to quality of services for the people of Pernambuco.

Sector Wide Approach to Strengthen Public Investment Project
$480 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to support and improve the planning and implementation of public investments by strengthening the capacity of the Borrower's planning agency and selected sector secretariats of the Borrower.

Federal Integrated Water Sector Project for Brazil
$107.33 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Ongoing)

The objective of the project is to support the Government of Brazil to improve the coordination and strengthen the capacity among key federal institutions in the water sector toward an integrated approach.

Pernambuco Rural Economic Inclusion Project for Brazil
$100 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Ongoing)

The objective of the project is to promote rural business initiatives and expansion of rural access to water and other complementary infrastructure by supporting the Borrower’s Results Management Framework.

Ceara Rural Sustainable Development and Competitiveness
$100 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Ongoing)

The objectives of the project are to: (i) improve the sustainability of rural production, including irrigation and rural income generation; and (ii) contribute to the Borrower's efforts to universalize access to Water Services.

Energy and Mineral Sector Strengthening
$49.6 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to strengthen the capacity of key public sector institutions to improve the contribution of energy and mineral resources to accelerated national economic growth and increased social and environmental sustainability in a context of globalization and technological change.

Sergipe Water Project for Brazil
$70.28 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to promote the efficient and sustainable use of water in the Sergipe River Basin, by strengthening the State's sector management, enhancing land management practices and improving water quality.

Development Policies for the State of Sergipe
$150 million | Start date: 04/2013 (Closed)

The development objectives of the proposed operation are to improve public sector management, and to expand access to quality public services and economic opportunities for the extremely poor in the State of Sergipe.

Belo Horizonte Urban Development Policy Loan
$200 million | Start date: 04/2013 (Closed)

The objective of the proposed operation is to support integrated and sustainable urban development and reduce social vulnerability in Belo Horizonte.

SWAp for Parana Multi-sector Development Project
$350 million | Start date: 04/2013 (Ongoing)

The objective of the project is to make access to economic and human development opportunities more equitable and environmentally sustainable in the Borrower s territory through the modernization of the Borrower s public sector and revenue management.

Sao Paulo State Sustainable Transport Project
$300 million | Start date: 04/2013 (Ongoing)

The objective of this project is to contribute to the improvement of the State’s transport and logistics efficiency and safety while enhancing the Borrower’s capacity in environmental and disaster risk management.

Additional Financing - Rio de Janeiro Sustainable Rural Development
$100 million | Start date: 04/2013 (Ongoing)

The objectives of the project is to increase the adoption of integrated and sustainable farming systems approaches in specific areas of the Borrower's territory and to help re-establish an agricultural productive environment in areas of the Serrana Region affected byte January 2011 natural disaster, thus contributing to the higher-order objective of increasing small-scale farming productivity and competitiveness in those areas.

Strengthening Service Delivery for Growth, Poverty Reduction and Enviromental Sustainability in the State of Ceará PforR
$350 million | Start date: 04/2014 (Ongoing )

The project development objective is to support the government to improve public service delivery particularly in the areas of skills development, family assistance and water quality.

Strengthening Public Management and Integrated Territorial Development
$48 million | Start date: 04/2014 (Closed)

The objective of the project is to support the Borrower to improve service delivery through introducing performance-based management information technologies and an integrated territorial development approach in key public services.

Brazil Bahia Sustainable Rural Development Project
$150 million | Start date: 04/2014 (Ongoing )

The project development objectives are to increase market integration, net revenues, and food security of organized beneficiaries; as well as to improve access to water supply and sanitation services of households in project areas.

BR Espirito Santo Integrated Sustainable Water Management Project
$225 million | Start date: 04/2014 (Ongoing )

The objectives of the project are to: (a) improve sustainable water resources management, and (b) increase access to sanitation in the Borrower’s territory.

RS: Strengthening Fiscal and Water Resources Management Development Policy Loan Project
$280 million | Start date: 04/2014 (Closed )

The project development objective is to improve government's capacity to mitigate economic volatility in the State of Rio Grande do Sul by supporting measures to increase resources available to the government and to reinforce the Integrated Water Resource Management framework.

Additional Finance to Acre Social and Economic Inclusion and Sustainable Development Project
$150 million | Start date: 04/2015 (Ongoing)

The objective of the project is to contribute to Brazil's efforts to promote social and economic inclusion of its rural and urban poor, including its poorest and most disadvantaged population living in isolated areas.

Piaui Productive and Social Inclusion Development Policy Loan
$200 million | Start date: 04/2016 (Closed)

The development objective of the Piaui Productive and Social Inclusion Development Policy Loan (DPL) Program Project for Brazil is to support the Government of Piaui (GoPi’s) key policy reforms for: (i) improved performance of secondary education students in state public schools and expanded coverage of public health services; (ii) expanded access of targeted vulnerable groups to productive chains and natural resources management services; (iii) strengthened systematic monitoring of priority investments; and (iv) strengthened institutions for gender mainstreaming and channeling the citizens’ voice in strategic programs.

Teresina Enhancing Municipal Governance and Quality of Life Project for Brazil
$88 million | Start date: 04/2016 (Ongoing)

The development objectives of the Teresina Enhancing Municipal Governance and Quality of Life Project for Brazil are to: (i) modernize and improve the management capacity of Teresina municipal government in the financial, urban, environmental, service-delivery, and economic development fields; and (ii) improve the quality of life of the low-income population of the Lagoas do Norte region of the city.

Fortaleza Sustainable Urban Development Project
$73.3 million | Start date: 04/2017 (ongoing)

The objectives of the Fortaleza Sustainable Urban Development Project for Brazil are to strengthen the capacity of the Municipality of Fortaleza for land use planning and land-based financing; and to enhance urban environment and rehabilitate public spaces, through interventions in selected areas of the Vertente Marítima Basin and of the Rachel de Queiroz Park.