India

Active Grants: 19

GDP (current US$): 2.6 trillion (2017)

Population: 1.34 billion (2017)

Major Partners

World Bank, European Union (EU), United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), Asian Development Bank (ADB)

INFORM Risk Rating: 5.4

Risk data from INFORM, a global open-source risk assessment for humanitarian crises and disasters, uses a scale from 0-10, with 10 as the highest level of risk.

Primary Hazards

Context

Natural Hazard Risk

India is vulnerable to a wide range of natural hazards, particularly flooding, cyclones, drought, extreme heat waves, landslides, wildfire, and earthquakes. Studies show that, as a result of climate change, the intensity, duration and frequency of weather-related shocks are likely to increase.  

In 2013, India experienced the double shock of severe flash floods in the state of Uttarakhand and Cyclone Phailin in the state of Odisha. The flooding and associated landslides in Uttarakhand caused over 4,000 deaths and $661 million in damage and loss, resulting in the country’s worst disaster since the 2004 tsunami.  

In India, vulnerability to natural hazards is exacerbated by high population density and growth in urban and coastal areas.  

Government Priorities 

The Government of India has taken significant steps to advance disaster risk management (DRM) and improve climate resilience. These include: 

  • Developing a National Action Plan on Climate Change (2008); 
  • Updating the National Policy on Disaster Management (2009), which includes guidelines for the creation of DRM plans at the state level; and, 
  • Developing the National Disaster Plan (2016), which provides a framework and direction for government agencies throughout all phases of DRM.  

With its proactive hydrological policies and programs, such as the World Bank-financed National Cyclone Risk Reduction Project, India has been cited as a case study for well-planned and carefully-executed DRM. DRM initiatives, including those supported by GFDRR, enabled a 99.6 percent reduction in fatalities during Cyclone Phailin compared to a similar storm system 14 years ago. However, capacity needs to be built and resources committed for India to minimize its overall risk and vulnerability to natural hazards.  

To further advance its DRM agenda, priorities include: 

  • Integrating DRM into development policies and processes; 
  • Enhancing institutional capacity and financial mechanisms to manage the impact of natural disasters;
  • Building the resilience of communities and settlements in coastal areas; and,  
  • Expanding resilient infrastructure investments.

GFDRR progress to date

Since 2007, GFDRR has supported the advancement of DRM in India. Key areas of focus have included helping India understand damage and loss after major disaster events and mitigating against the risks of flooding and cyclones.  

To enhance resilience and improve DRM service delivery, GFDRR has supported and continues to support a number of projects that help build the capacity of national, state, and local officials as well as community leaders. Activities have financed training State government officials on search and rescue techniques and are deepening knowledge on community-based DRM. In addition, cooperation between India Central Water Commission and Japan Water Agency is improving dam safety guidelines and informing investments on the $279.3 million World Bank Dam Rehabilitation and Improvement Project.

In 2010, GFDRR provided technical and financial support to help implement the $255 million World Bank National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. The project has improved early warning systems and built risk mitigation infrastructure, including 270 multi-purpose Cyclone shelters for nearly 280,000 people living in vulnerable coastal areas. This program contributed to a dramatic reduction in fatalities following Cyclone Phailin in 2013 compared to a similar storm system 14 years prior. The project is currently being scaled through $308.4 million in World Bank financing in order to directly benefit an additional 1.6 million people exposed to cyclones.  

GFDRR has supported assessments following major disasters to help the Government of India and state governments better understand damage and loss to recover resiliently and leverage additional support. For example, the PDNA following the 2008 flooding of the Kosi River in the state of Bihar led to a $170 million World Bank financed project. With GFDRR support, the project has helped people in Bihar recover and build resilient communities for the long-term. As part of the project, 100,000 damaged houses have been rebuilt using an owner-driven model. The project is currently being extended through a $377 million initiative to increase flood resilience and agricultural productivity in targeted districts.   

GFDRR anticipates continued demand to strengthen disaster and climate resilience in the following areas:  

  • Building the resilience of urban coastal communities; 
  • Strengthening DRM capacities of National and State agencies and communities; and, 
  • Promoting seismic risk and resilient infrastructure.  

Grants Awarded by GFDRR 2007 - Present

Grant
Technical assistance to build capacities for scaling up DRM investments in SAR
$500,000 04/2018 - 12/2019
Review of Historical Disaster Scenarios
$149,862 03/2017 - 08/2017
Support to accelerate implementation of South Asia Regional (SAR) priority country programs
$1,362,651 08/2011 - 12/2017
Support to Strengthen India's National DRM Capacity
$920,398 10/2014 - 08/2017
Building Regulation for Resilience (BRR) Program
$645,000 03/2016 - 08/2017
Enhancing Knowledge and Effectiveness of DRM in South Asia
$300,000 04/2018 - 09/2019
Promoting Resilient Infrastructure in South Asia – Phase 2
$1,000,000 04/2018 - 11/2019
Improving Resilience and Resilience Impact of National Land and Geospatial Systems
$500,000 09/2017 - 07/2019
Business Continuity Planning for Climate Resilient Industries
$500,000 10/2017 - 10/2019
Multi-hazard Risk and Governance Assessment in India
$1,250,000 12/2017 - 12/2019
Hydromet and Climate Services in South Asia
$1,000,000 09/2016 - 06/2019
Building Resilience to Landslide and Geohazard risk in the South Asia Region
$1,000,000 06/2016 - 03/2019
Operationalizing Building Regulation for Resilience Program
$1,000,000 05/2017 - 02/2019
Climate and Disaster Resilient Rails Development
$500,000 01/2017 - 06/2020
Improving Service Delivery of DRM in India
$2,000,000 02/2015 - 12/2018
Resilient Infrastructure - PPP Contracts and Procurement
$300,000 11/2016 - 06/2019
Financial Protection for Agriculture
$2,312,400 02/2016 - 12/2020
Just-in-Time Capacity Building and Advice for Climate Resilience
$3,100,000 01/2015 - 12/2018
Support to Strengthen India’s National DRM Capacity
$946,237 10/2014 - 08/2017

World Bank Engagements 2012 – Present

Project Description
West Bengal Accelerated Development of Minor Irrigation
$250 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to enhance agricultural production of small and marginal farmers in the project area. This will be achieved through development of minor irrigation schemes, strengthening community-based irrigation management, and support to agricultural development, including provision of agricultural services, encouraging crop diversification and use of new technologies, and creating income generating opportunities.

Bihar Rural Livelihoods Project Additional Financing
$100 million | Start date: 04/2012 (Closed)

The project development objective is to enhance social and economic empowerment of the rural poor in Bihar.

Karnataka Watershed Development II
$60 million | Start date: 09/2012 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to demonstrate more effective watershed management through greater integration of programs related to rainfed agriculture, innovative and science based approaches, and strengthened institutions and capacities.

Tamil Nadu and Puducherry Coastal Disaster Risk Reduction Project
$236 million | Start date: 06/2013 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to increase the resilience of coastal communities in Tamil Nadu and Puducherry to a range of hydro-meteorological and geophysical hazards, along with improve the capacity of project implementing entities to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Uttar Pradesh Water Sector Restructuring Project Phase II
$360 million | Start date: 08/2013 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to strengthen the institutional and policy framework for integrated water resources management for the entire state and increase agricultural productivity and water productivity by supporting farmers in targeted irrigation areas.

Uttarakhand Disaster Recovery Project
$250 million | Start date: 10/2013 (Ongoing)

The development objectives of the project are to restore housing, rural connectivity and build resilience of communities in Uttarakhand and increase the technical capacity of the State entities to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

India Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project for Low Income States
$500 million | Start date: 12/2013 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to improve piped water supply and sanitation services for selected rural communities in the target states through decentralized delivery systems and to increase the capacity of the participating states to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Bihar Integrated Social Protection Strengthening Project
$84 million | Start date: 12/2013 (Ongoing)

The development objective of the project is to strengthen institutional capacity of the Department of Social Welfare and the Rural Development Department to deliver social protection programs and services and expand outreach of social care services for poor and vulnerable households, persons with disabilities, older persons and widows in the state of Bihar.

Odisha Disaster Recovery Project
$153 million | Start date: 02/2014 (Ongoing)

The development objectives of the project are to restore and improve housing and public services in targeted communities of Odisha, and increase the capacity of the state entities to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Uttarakhand Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project Additional Financing
$24 million | Start date: 03/2014 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to improve the effectiveness of rural water supply and sanitation services through decentralization and an increased role of Panchayati Raj Institutions and local communities in the state of Uttarakhand. It will also restore services of damaged schemes in disaster affected areas.

Uttarakhand Decentralized Watershed Development II Project
$121.2 million | Start date: 03/2014 (Ongoing)

The objective of the project is to increase the efficiency of natural resource use and productivity of rain-fed agriculture by participating communities in selected micro-watersheds of the State of Uttarakhand.

India National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project Additional Financing
$104 million | Start date: 04/2014 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to reduce the vulnerability of coastal communities in Andhra Pradesh and Orissa to cyclones and other hydro meteorological hazards.

2nd Development Policy Loan to Support Inclusive Green Growth and Sustainable Devlpment in Himachal Pradesh
$100 million | Start date: 05/2014 (Closed)

The development objective of the project is to support the Government of Himachal Pradesh to make a permanent paradigm shift to promote inclusive green growth and sustainable development.

India Neeranchal National Watershed Project
$178.5 million | Start date: 07/2014 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to support integrated watershed management program (IWMP) through technical assistance to improve incremental conservation outcomes and agricultural yields for communities in selected sites, and adoption of more effective processes and technologies into the broader IWMP in participating states.

Sustainable Livelihoods and Adaptation to Climate Change
- | Start date: 12/2014 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to improve adaptive capacity of the rural poor engaged in farm-based livelihoods to cope with climate variability and change.

Tamil Nadu Sustainable Urban Development Program
$400 million | Start date: 03/2015 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to improve urban services delivery in participating urban local bodies in a financially sustainable manner and to pilot improved urban managementpractices in selected cities.

National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project-II
$308.4 million | Start date: 05/2015 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to reduce vulnerability to cyclone and other hydro-meteorological hazards of coastal communities in project States, and increase the capacity of the State entities to effectively plan for and respond to disasters.

Jhelum and Tawi Flood Recovery Project
$250 million | Start date: 06/2015 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to support the recovery and increase disaster resilience in Project Areas, and increase thecapacity of the Project Implementing Entity to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Andhra Pradesh Disaster Recovery Project
$250 million | Start date: 06/2015 (Ongoing)

The project development objectives are: (i) to restore, improve, and enhance the resilience of public services, environmental facilities, and livelihoods in targeted communities; and (ii) to enhance the capacity of state entities to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Bihar Kosi Basin Development Project
$250 million | Start date: 12/2015 (Ongoing)

The project development objective are: (i) to enhance resilience to floods and increase agricultural production and productivity in the targeted districts in the Kosi River Basin; and (ii) to enhance Bihar’s capacity to respond promptly and effectively to an eligible crisis or emergency.

Bihar Rural Roads Project
$235 million | Start date: 12/2016 (Ongoing)

The Project Development Objective is to improve rural road connectivity in project districts, and enhance management of rural roads in Bihar.

Uttarakhand Health Systems Development Project
$100 million | Start date: 01/2017 (Ongoing)

The Project Development Objective is to improve access to quality health services, particularly in the hilly districts of the state, and to expand health financial risk protection for the residents of Uttarakhand.

National Hydrology Project
$175 million | Start date: 03/2017 (Ongoing)

The Project Development Objective is to improve the extent, quality, and accessibility of water resources information and to strengthen the capacity of targeted water resources management institutions in India.

Capacity Augmentation of the National Waterway- 1 (JAL MARG VIKAS) Project
$375 million | Start date: 04/2017 (Ongoing)

The Project Development Objective is to enhance transport efficiency and reliability of National Waterway and augment institutional capacity for the development and management of India's inland waterway transport system in an environmentally sustainable manner.

Madhya Pradesh Urban Development Project
$116.2 million | Start date: 04/2017 (Ongoing)

The project development objective is to enhance the capacity of MPUDC to improve coverage of key urban services and increase the revenue of participating urban local bodies.

Assam Agribusiness and Rural Transformation Project
$200 million | Start date: 08/2017 (Ongoing)

The development objective of the Assam Agribusiness and Rural Transformation Project for India is to add value and improve resilience of selected agriculture value chains, focusing on smallholder farmers and agro-entrepreneurs in targeted districts of Assam.

Maharashtra Project on Climate Resilient Agriculture
$420 million | Start date: 02/2018 (Ongoing)

The development objective of Maharashtra Project on Climate Resilient Agriculture Project for India is to enhance climate‐resilience and profitability of smallholder farming systems in selected districts of Maharashtra.

Madhya Pradesh Rural Connectivity project
$210 million | Start date: 03/2018 (Ongoing)

The development objective of the Madhya Pradesh Rural Connectivity Project for India is to improve durability and enhance resilience to climate changes of the gravel surfaced rural roads in Madhya Pradesh while building the capacity of the state to manage its rural road network and road safety.

Additional Financing for PMGSY Rural Roads Project
$500 million | Start date: 05/2018 (Ongoing)

The objective of this project is to strengthen the systems and processes of the national PMGSY rural roads program for the expansion and maintenance of all-season rural access roads. The result will enhance the road connectivity to economic opportunities and social services for beneficiary communities in the participating states.